Stanford UniversityLeland Stanford Junior University (Stanford University or Stanford) is a private research university in Stanford, California. Stanford is known for its academic achievements, wealth, close proximity to Silicon Valley, and selectivity; it ranks as one of the world's top universities.
The university was founded in 1885 by Leland and Jane Stanford in memory of their only child, Leland Stanford Jr., who had died of typhoid fever at age 15 the previous year. Stanford was a U.S. Senator and former Governor of California who made his fortune as a railroad tycoon. The school admitted its first students on October 1, 1891, as a coeducational and non-denominational institution.
Stanford University struggled financially after the death of Leland Stanford in 1893 and again after much of the campus was damaged by the 1906 San Francisco earthquake. Following World War II, Provost Frederick Terman supported faculty and graduates' entrepreneurialism to build self-sufficient local industry in what would later be known as Silicon Valley. The university is also one of the top fundraising institutions in the country, becoming the first school to raise more than a billion dollars in a year.
The university is organized around three traditional schools consisting of 40 academic departments at the undergraduate and graduate level and four professional schools that focus on graduate programs in law, medicine, education and business. Students compete in 36 varsity sports, and the university is one of two private institutions in the Division I FBS Pac-12 Conference. It has gained 123 NCAA team championships, the most for a university. Stanford athletes have won 522 (the most) individual championships, and Stanford has won the NACDA Directors' Cup for 24 consecutive years, beginning in 1994–1995. In addition, Stanford students and alumni have won 270 Olympic medals including 139 gold medals.
As of October 2019, 83 Nobel laureates, 27 Turing Award laureates, # Allen Newell: BS Physics Stanford 1949; PhD Carnegie Institute of Technology 1957. Graduate school alumni who received the Turing Award: # Martin Hellman: BE New York University 1966, MS Stanford University 1967, PhD Stanford University 1969, all in electrical engineering. Professor at Stanford 1971–1996. # John Hopcroft: BS Seattle University; MS EE Stanford 1962, Phd EE Stanford 1964. # Barbara Liskov: BSc Berkeley 1961; PhD Stanford. # Raj Reddy: BS from Guindy College of Engineering (Madras, India) 1958; M Tech, University of New South Wales 1960; PhD Stanford 1966. # Ronald Rivest: BA Yale 1969; PhD Stanford 1974. # Robert Tarjan: BS Caltech 1969; MS Stanford 1971, PhD 1972.
Non-alumni former and current faculty, staff, and researchers who received the Turing Award: # Whitfield Diffie: BS mathematics Massachusetts Institute of Technology 1965. Visiting scholar at Stanford 2009–2010 and an affiliate from 2010–2012; currently a consulting professor at CISAC (The Center for International Security and Cooperation at Stanford University). # Doug Engelbart: BS EE Oregon State University 1948; MS EE Berkeley 1953; PhD Berkeley 1955. Researcher/Director at Stanford Research Institute (SRI) 1957–1977; Director (Bootstrap Project) at Stanford University 1989–1990. # Edward Feigenbaum: BS Carnegie Institute of Technology 1956, PhD Carnegie Institute of Technology 1960. Associate Professor at Stanford 1965–1968; Professor at Stanford 1969–2000; Professor Emeritus at Stanford (2000-present). # Robert W. Floyd: BA 1953, BSc Physics, both from University of Chicago. Professor at Stanford (1968–1994). # Sir Antony Hoare: Undergraduate at Oxford University. Visiting Professor at Stanford 1973. # Alan Kay: BA/BS from University of Colorado at Boulder, PhD 1969 from University of Utah. Researcher at Stanford 1969–1971. # John McCarthy: BS Math, Caltech; PhD Princeton. Assistant Professor at Stanford 1953–1955; Professor at Stanford 1962–2011. # Robin Milner: BSc 1956 from Cambridge University. Researcher at Stanford University 1971–1972. # Amir Pnueli: BSc Math from Technion 1962, PhD Weizmann Institute of Science 1967. Instructor at Stanford 1967; Visitor at Stanford 1970 # Dana Scott: BA Berkeley 1954, PhD Princeton 1958. Associate Professor at Stanford 1963–1967. # Niklaus Wirth: BS Swiss Federal Institute of Technology 1959, MSC Universite Laval, Canada, 1960; PhD Berkeley 1963. Assistant Professor at Stanford University 1963–1967. # Andrew Yao: BS physics National University of Taiwan 1967; AM Physics Haravard 1969; PhD Physics, Harvard 1972; PhD CS University of Illinois Urbana–Champagin 1975 Assistant Professor at Stanford University 1976–1981; Professor at Stanford University 1982–1986.|name="noteStudAward"}} and 8 Fields Medalists have been affiliated with Stanford as students, alumni, faculty or staff. In addition, Stanford University is particularly noted for its entrepreneurship and is one of the most successful universities in attracting funding for start-ups. Stanford alumni have founded numerous companies, which combined produce more than $2.7 trillion in annual revenue and have created 5.4 million jobs as of 2011, roughly equivalent to the 10th largest economy in the world (). Stanford is the alma mater of 30 living billionaires and 17 astronauts, and is also one of the leading producers of members of the United States Congress. Provided by Wikipedia
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